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Penn State University Libraries


Monographs Team
126 Paterno Library
University Park, PA 16802-1808

Cataloging and Metadata Services
126 Paterno Library
University Park, PA 16802-1808

Staff Directory

Phone: (814) 865-1755
Fax: (814) 863-7293

Juvenile Books -- EBSL


I. Collection Descriptions


A. Introduction

The Education & Behavioral Sciences Library currently has three major collections of juvenile books: Picture Books, Juvenile Fiction, and Library of Congress Classification. Within our catalog, the boundaries of these collections, as well as others, will be defined by the use of Home Locations, free-form call numbers, and Library of Congress Classification.

In the past, several call number systems were eliminated in favor of current LC classification and free-form call numbers. The goal in eliminating those call numbers was to provide a separation between the collections that LC call numbers do not provide. PZ7 call numbers were eliminated in favor of Fiction and Picture Books call numbers. PZ8 classification, known as a dumping place for miscellaneous juvenile material, has also been eliminated, except for legitimate PZ8 (see Folklore). Other classifications from PZ5 through PZ10.3 are acceptable with the exception of PZ8.7, PZ8.9, PZ9, and PZ10. These are obsolete and should be referred for valid classification.

PZ Classification Table
Range Action
PZ1-PZ4 Do not accept. Refer for reclassification.
PZ5 Accept classification.
PZ6 Do not accept. Refer for reclassification.
PZ7 Assign appropriate free-form call number (except for some Alphabet and Counting Books). (PZ7.5 is not to be used for EBSL. Catalog appropriately under Fiction or Picture Books.)
PZ8-PZ8.3 Assign appropriate free-form call number, with exceptions
PZ8.7-PZ10 Do not accept. Refer for reclassification.
PZ10.3 Accept classification. (Frequently requested to be cataloged in Picture Books)

B. Item Identification

  1. Picture Books
  2. Picture books are generally dominated by illustrations, or share a 1 to 1 ratio with the text. The purpose of a picture book is to tell a story through illustrations, with minimal use of text. Picture books are often 16, 32 or 64 pages long, and may be wider than they are tall. Note that the Picture Books collection is composed of fictional works. If an item appears to be a picture book but contains a non-fiction LC classification, consider it to be Juvenile LC. Do not give free-form call numbers to non-English picture books (see Foreign Language Books section below). Be aware of situations concerning counting and alphabet books.

    Library: UP-PAT
    Home location: JUVENIL-ED
    Free-form call number or acceptable PZ classification

  3. Juvenile Fiction
  4. In contrast to picture books, juvenile fiction emphasizes the text over any illustrations that might be present. Illustrators generally receive added entries rather than main entries. Text will be more plentiful than the illustrations, and double pages of text are common. Do not give free-form call numbers to non-English juvenile fiction books (see Foreign Language Books section below).

    Library: UP-PAT
    Home location: JUVENIL-ED
    Free-form call number or acceptable PZ classification

  5. Juvenile Library of Congress Classification
  6. Juvenile LC items receive LC classification and subjects. Fictional works borderlining young adult/adult fiction may be in this collection. Accept only PZ classifications for non-English books (see Foreign Language Books section below). Foreign cataloging sources (especially Canadian) often us PS numbers for materials that should be placed in the Picture Books and Fiction collections.

    Library: UP-PAT
    Home location: JUVENIL-ED
    LC subject-based call numbers (with exceptions: see Special Categories)


II. Home Locations for the Education & Behavioral Sciences Library Collections

In the table below are all the Home Locations currently in use for the Education & Behavioral Sciences Library.

EBSL Home locations
Collection Library Home Location Type
Library of Congress Classification (LC class) UP-PAT JUVENIL-ED JUVENILEBK
Reference Collection UP-EDUBEHV REF-ED REF-ITEM
Kits UP-EDUBEHV KITS-ED MULTIMEDIA (relia, kits, graphic)

III. Special Categories


A. The PZ8 - Folklore

Folklore defined ...
Term Definition
-- n.

1. traditional tales, customs, beliefs, songs, or sayings retold unreflectively among a people or group.

2. a category of juvenile book that retains PZ8 or other LC classification despite the fact that PZ8 is otherwise unacceptable in the Education & Behavioral Sciences Library collections.

  1. PZ8
  2. PZ8 is the legitimate classification for English-language works of fairy tales, folklore, legends, romance, fables and anonymous nursery rhymes. We will accept PZ8 classification when these keywords are included in the subjects found on copy. In fact, these works may be assigned a variety of legitimate classifications other than PZ8, depending on the language and source of the work.  All of these classifications are acceptable in the Education & Behavioral Sciences Library collections.

    Unfortunately the Library of Congress has also used PZ8 as a dumping ground for miscellaneous juvenile books.  It is these miscellaneous juvenile books (usually picture books but sometimes juvenile fiction) that must be assigned free-form call numbers. The legitimately classed works of fairy tales, folklore, legends, romance, fables and anonymous nursery rhymes must remain in PZ8.

    Below are the legitimate PZ8 classifications for English-language fairy tales, folklore, legends, romance, fables and anonymous nursery rhymes. PZ8.3 is currently being heavily used for all rhyming books. Do not place an item in this classification unless it is truly an anonymous work. Most of the PZ8.3 you receive will go into the Picture Books collection.

    PZ8 Classifications in Use
    Category Range
    Fairy tales PZ8
    Folklore, legends, romance PZ8.1
    Fables PZ8.2
    Anonymous nursery rhymes (DO NOT use for books in rhyme for EBSL, OK to use for CCL locations)

  3. Cultural Value
  4. Some works placed in PZ8 have an intrinsic cultural value, even though they do not include the keywords listed in the table above. They do, however, fit the broader definition of folklore (see definition). Here are some examples of works that may retain PZ8 classification, but do not contain the keywords listed above:

    Examples of cultural items with PZ8 classification
    Work Comment Keywords
    Old MacDonald had a farm / illustrated by Carol Jones The illustrator is retelling a popular folk song. Subject: Folk songs, American.
    The Magic flute : the story of Mozart's opera / [illustrated by] Francesca Crespi ; retold by Margaret Graves. "The Magic Flute" is a legend that is being retold in this work. retold
    The twelve days of Christmas / illustrated by Sophie Windham. Subjects do not include keywords, but do include words showing cultural value ("Folk songs, England") Subject: Folk Songs, England.

  5. Narratives
  6. Who wrote "The Tortoise and the Hare"?  Where did Mozart get the story for "The Magic Flute"? Who is getting the royalties from "Old MacDonald Had a Farm"? How did the apostles write about the birth of Jesus when none of them were there? How could "James and the Giant Peach" be written by Roald Dahl in 1961, then again in 1996 by Lane Smith and Karey Kirkpatrick? Did Madame Le Prince de Beaumont contribute to the Disney film "Beauty and the Beast"?

    The titles listed above are all narrative stories. Some of these works are anonymous. Some were part of an oral tradition before being committed to paper. Some of the stories were not anonymous, but they have been retold by hundreds of writers in dozens of languages. In all these cases, the story itself has a greater value than the authors or retellers.

    It was decided not to include these works in the free-form call number system because many would be title main entry. Assigning free-form call numbers with title main entry to these works would be problematic because multiple retellers may use multiple titles to refer to the same story. In addition, a single tale may be published in many different languages, making title main entry even less useful in shelving works together. Leaving these works in PZ8 does not solve the problem of shelving by work, but it does shelve works of the same type together (see PZ8 table).


B. PS Classification

Occasionally copy contains a PS classification for an item that is clearly juvenile fiction or a picture book.  Assign a free-form call number as fiction or picture books when the item is clearly not a work of adult literature. There are exceptions when a PS classification should be used as noted in the Poetry and Juvenile Libary of Congress Classification sections. Refer if the book is in a foreign language and does not have have a PZ classification as noted in the Foreign Language Books section below.


C. Poetry

Items of poetry are handled differently depending on content and main entry. Follow the table below to determine proper handling procedures:

Guide for poetry
Category Action
Anonymous Nursery Rhymes See PZ8 section above
Anthology or collection of poetry /
1 or more author
Juvenile Library of Congress Classification
Use LC class # such as PN--, PS--
Poetry is by one specific author (well-known) Juvenile Library of Congress Classification
Use author's LC class #
Text is one long continuous poem with many pictures/illustrations Use free form Picture Books call #

D. Foreign Language Fiction and Picture Books

The Education & Behavioral Sciences Library wants all juvenile foreign language books classed in PZ, both fictional and non-fictional works. Accept PZ classifications PZ10.72-PZ90 for foreign language books and provide a second cutter based on the title of the work as shown in the example below. Refer for all other classifications. Do not assign free-form call numbers. Refer if copy has PZ1-PZ10.5 classifications or does not shelve in the correct language area.

Handling of foreign language items
Category Example
Author/title: Hazen, Barbara Shook. Fue el gorila.
LC call number: PZ73.H394 1994
Our call number with shortened author cutter and added title cutter: PZ73.H39Fue 1994

E. Alphabet and Counting Books

For alphabet books, accept PE1155 classification only. Refer for all other classifications.

For counting books, accept QA113 classification only. Refer for all other classifications.

If you find that our Picture Books collection has numerous books by an author of a counting or alphabet book, keep the author's works together in Picture Books. Refer if uncertain as to in which collection to place an item. If the author has books in more than one area, use the selector's decision as your guide.


IV. Free-form Call Numbers for Fiction and Picture Books Collections


A. Introduction

Free-form call numbers are assigned to picture books and juvenile fiction. The purpose of the free-form call number system is to create a distinction between fiction and picture books, and to shelve authors together within each of the collections. All call numbers within the picture books collection begin with the words "Picture Books". All call numbers within the juvenile fiction begin with the word "Fiction".


B. Free Form Call Number Structure

Free form call numbers have Class scheme "ASIS" and consist of the following:

  1. The term "Picture Books" or "Fiction" followed by a space.

  2. A Cutter number for the main entry. To construct this, enter the first letter from the main entry. Then cutter out the next three letters of the main entry using the Cutter Table for Author Numbers. Extend or adjust the Cutter number as necessary to distinguish authors and to put names in alphabetical order. Note that there is no period before the capital letter. It is a commonly accepted convention that a cutter should never end with 0 or 1. Prefer the digits 2-9.

  3. At least three lower-case letters representing the title of the book. If there is already an item in the shelflist with the same author and a title beginning with the same letters, one or more additional lower-case letters may be used for the item in hand. This may not put the titles in correct alphabetical order, but that is OK. For works that have a 240 and 245, use the 245 for creating the remainder of the Cutter number.

  4. The date of publication, preceded by a space.

In the case of title main entries, omit #3 (the lower-case letters representing the title); instead one or more digits may be given in the Cutter number to make it easier to arrange books with similar titles.

Older records in the catalog may contain Cutter numbers of various sizes due to changes in previous guidelines. When adding volumes to a record with an existing free form call number, use that call number unless it is obviously incorrect.

As the free form call number collections have grown, areas within them have become difficult in which to place new authors. As a rule, try to limit the remarking of items when adding new authors unless it is absolutely necessary. Also try to space out new free form call numbers when adding new authors. This will allow for the insertion of authors without remarking of items previously cataloged.

Examples as they are in our collection (Note they are not in strict cutter form, but shelflist appropriately within The CAT)

Free form call number examples
Category Treatment
Author main entry (juvenile fiction): Call number: Fiction A454col 1996
100 1   Aiken, Joan,|d1924- 
245 10 Cold shoulder road /|cJoan Aiken.
Author main entry (picture book): Call number: Picture Books R373blu 1996
100 1   Raschka, Christopher. 
245 14 The blushful hippopotamus /|cChris Raschka.
Author main entry (picture book with 240 & 245 - use 245 title to finish cutter): Call number: Picture Books P495rai 1995
100 1   Pfister, Marcus. 
240 10 Regenbogenfisch. |lEnglish. 
245 14 The rainbow fish /|cMarcus Pfister ; translated by J. Alison James.
Title main entry: Call number: Fiction F57222 2004
245 00 First crossing :|bstories about teen immigrants /|cedited by Donald R. Gallo.
700 1# Gallo, Donald R.

C. Appropriate Shelving

  1. Assigning Unique Author Cutters to Each Author
  2. The goal in assigning free-form call numbers is to shelve works of the same author together. Shelflist to avoid duplicating a cutter that is already being used for another author. Search the author to identify a cutter that has already been assigned to that author. Some authors have works in both the fiction and picture books collections (e.g., Mary Jane Auch). It is permissible for one author to have a different author cutter in "Picture Books" than in "Fiction", but an author should only have one author cutter within each collection.

  3. Alphabetizing Authors Within the Shelflist
  4. You will likely need to adjust the author cutter in order to place it in alphabetical order. The Cutter Table for Author Numbers should only be used as a guide. Use your best judgement to establish numbers. Refer any items you have concerns about.


V. Sample Record for an Education Library Juvenile Book

Copy found in OCLC using SmartPort:

OCLC copy for juvenile book

When finished, the record's Vol/Copy information should look like this:

OCLC copy for juvenile book updated based on local cataloging procedures

VI. Task List for Juvenile items needing Free-Form call numbers

  1. Search for The CAT for established Picture Books or Fiction author numbers and copy
  2. Follow monographic cataloging procedures for match criteria for copy found within The CAT or from SmartPort sources
  3. Catalog materials following monographic guidelines accept for the establishing a Free-Form call number
  4. Assign free-form call number when needed
  5. Shelflist to check for duplicate author and title numbers, adjust as necessary.
  6. Treat referrals the same as you would for all monographs. Refer items to Subject Specialist that need original cataloging, LC call numbers, Subjects, and that have copy of an unacceptable copy level or quality

VII. Duplicates

Duplicate items identified by EBSL and Cataloging and Metadata staff will be forwarded to APGT for cataloging. Duplicates may include items that were UFO orders, gifts, or Approval Plan items. Items identified as duplicates may be done so based on title, not just exact match, i.e., they may differ in edition or physical description, such as board book vs. library edition. EBSL selectors have chosen not to duplicate the "titles" in their collection, so any duplicates are being given to the APGT for CCL cataloging. Individuals identifying items as title duplicates vs. exact duplicates will mark them as "title dup" rather than just "dup".

Once the APGT has received an item indicated as a duplicate, they should follow the Juvenile Books (CCL) documentation for the cataloging of the item. Any questions concerning the identifying of an item as an EBSL duplicate should be referred to the EBSL or Cataloging and Metadata staff person responsible for the original decision to duplicate the item. As a general rule, it is not "ok to duplicate" an item in the EBSL unless specifically requested to do so by the selector, even if the book is a firm order or approval plan item. In the case of a duplicate copy being an endowed item, EBSL and Cataloging and Metadata staff will "swap out" the copy already cataloged for an endowed item, and the first copy will become the duplicate. This will be done with all labeled endowments except the Paterno Libraries Endowment. Remember, occasionally, two copies of an item may have been ordered, but the selector's intent is not to have both copies go to EBSL. However, it is acceptable to have items in both EBSL and Pennsylvania Center for the Book.

Items ordered by CAST found to be duplicates should be returned directly to CAST.