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Penn State University Libraries


Cataloging and Metadata Services
126 Paterno Library
University Park, PA 16802-1808

Staff Directory

Phone: (814) 865-1755
Fax: (814) 863-7293

Diacritics and Special Characters

In Symphony WorkFlows, insert diacritics, special characters, super/subscripts and Greek letters by choosing them from the Symbol Table, which can be found under the Tools menu. Make sure you have the "Customize font" setting set to Arial Unicode MS so that all the characters/symbols display properly. To choose which set of symbols you want to display, click on the drop down menu arrow to the right of the "Select code set" box and make the appropriate selection. Mousing over an item will display a pop-up text with its name. Highlight the symbol you want to enter by clicking on it, then click Insert. The highlighted symbol will be inserted where your cursor is located in the record.

Optionally, load the ALA Character Set of Diacritics and Symbols by checking it under the Tools-->Loaded Character Sets menu. After it is loaded, it will appear as an option under the Tools-->Symbol Table menu. When using the ALA Character Set, enter a diacritic following the letter you wish to modify. When inputting ligatures and multiple diacritics for a single letter, move left to right, bottom to top, starting with the (first) letter.



Name Example
Acute á
Angstrom or Circle above å
Breve breve
Candrabindu candrabindu
Cedilla ç
Circle below circle below
Circumflex â
Dot above or Superior dot dot above or superior dot
Dot below dot below
Double acute double acute
Double dot below double dot below
Double tilde double tilde
Double underscore double underscore
Grave à
Name Example
Hacek or Caron hacek or caron
Half circle below or
half circle below or upadhmaniya
High comma, centered high comma, centered
High comma, off center high comma, off center
Hook/Tail left or Comma below Hook/Tail left or Comma below
Hook/Tail right or Ogonek Hook/Tail right or Ogonek
Ligature, left and right Ligature, left and right
Low rising tone mark or
Pseudo question mark
Low rising tone mark or Pseudo question mark
Macron Macron
Right/Inverted cedilla Right/Inverted cedilla
Tilde ñ
Umlaut or Diaeresis ä
Underscore Underscore

Special Characters

Note: German ß is not considered a special character because it is transliterated as a double s (e.g., Fluß = Fluss).

Name Example
Alif Alif
Ayn Ayn
British pound sign £
Copyright ©
D w/ crossbar, Uppercase or
Slash D or Eth
D w/ crossbar, Lowercase or
Slash d or Eth
D w/ crossbar, Lowercase or Slash d or Eth
Degree sign °
Digraph AE, Uppercase or
Ligature AE
Digraph ae, Lowercase or
Ligature ae
Digraph OE, Uppercase or
Ligature OE
Digraph OE, Uppercase or Ligature OE
Digraph oe, Lowercase or
Ligature oe
Digraph oe, Lowercase or Ligature oe
Dotless i or
Turkish i, Lowercase
Dotless i or Turkish i, Lowercase
Eth ð
Hard sign-double prime or
Tverdyi znak
Hook O, Uppercase Hook O, Uppercase
Hook o, Lowercase  Hook o, Lowercase
Name Example
Hook U, Uppercase Hook U, Uppercase
Hook u, Lowercase Hook u, Lowercase
Inverted exclamation mark ¡
Inverted question mark ¿
Middle dot (between 2 l's) l·l
Musical flat Musical flat
Musical sharp Musical sharp
Patent mark (subscript)  Patent mark (subscript), ®
Phono record copyright Phono record copyright
Plus or Minus sign ±
Script l Script l
Slash L or
Polish L, Uppercase
Slash L or Polish L, Uppercase
Slash l or
Polish l, Lowercase
Slash l or Polish l, Lowercase
Slash O or
Scandinavian O, Uppercase
Slash o or
Scandinavian o, Lowercase
Soft sign-prime or
Miagkiy znak
Thorn, Uppercase Þ
Thorn, Lowercase þ


Superscript 0-6
Name Example
Superscript 0 Super0
Superscript 1 Super1
Superscript 2 Super2
Superscript 3 Super3
Superscript 4 Super4
Superscript 5 Super5
Superscript 6 Super6
Superscript 7-9 and symbols
Name Example
Superscript 7 Super7
Superscript 8 Super8
Superscript 9 Super9
Superscript ( Super(
Superscript ) Super)
Superscript + Super+
Superscript - Super-


Subscript 0-6
Name Example
Subscript 0 Sub0
Subscript 1 Sub1
Subscript 2 Sub2
Subscript 3 Sub3
Subscript 4 Sub4
Subscript 5 Sub5
Subscript 6 Sub6
Subscript 7-9 and symbols
Name Example
Subscript 7 Sub7
Subscript 8 Sub8
Subscript 9 Sub9
Subscript ( Sub(
Subscript ) Sub)
Subscript + Sub+
Subscript - Sub-

Greek Letters

Alpha, beta and gamma are the only Greek letters that can be entered from the Symbol Table. The remaining Greek letters should be spelled out in brackets.


Use the Symbol Table to enter the following:
Name Case Example
Alpha Lowercase Alpha Lowercase
Beta Lowercase Beta Lowercase
Gamma Lowercase Gamma Lowercase


Spell out the names of the other Greek letters in brackets (e.g., = [delta]).
Name Uppercase Lowercase
[Alpha] A In Symbol Table
[Beta] B In Symbol Table
[Gamma] Gamma uppercase In Symbol Table
[Delta] Delta Uppercase Delta
[Epsilon] E  Epsilon Lowercase
[Zeta] Z Zeta lowercase
[Eta] H  Eta lowercase
[Theta] Theta Uppercase Theta lowercase 1, Theta lowercase 2
[Iota] I Iota lowercase
[Kappa] K  Kappa lowercase
[Lambda] Lambda Uppercase Lambda lowercase
[Mu] M µ
[Nu] N Nu lowercase
[Xi] Xi uppercase Xi lower
[Omicron] O o
[Pi] Pi uppercase Pi lowercase
[Rho] P Rho lowercase
[Sigma] Sigma uppercase Sigma lowercase 1, Sigma lowercase 2
[Tau] T Tau lowercase
[Upsilon] Y Upsilon lowercase
[Phi] Phi uppercase Phi lowercase 1, Phi lowercase 2
[Chi] X Chi lowercase
[Psi] Psi uppercase Psi lowercase
[Omega] Omega uppercase Omega lowercase 1, Omega lowercase 2