The reasonableness of Christianity (1695)

The publication of Some thoughts concerning education in 1693 marked the end of a period in Locke’s life. For five years, he had been revising and perfecting studies which had originated during his stay in Holland … or earlier. Although there still remained some unfinished work (in particular, the lectures on natural law and moral philosophy), Locke turned instead to new pursuits: to the defense of his published writings and to the study of Scripture and theology. It is not clear what prompted this interest in religion, but part of the answer may lie in reactions to the Essay concerning human understanding.

Locke spent the winter of 1694/5 at Oates, preparing the 3rd edition of Some thoughts, drafting his critique of Malebranche and his English follower John Norris, and studying the Bible. Thus far, there had been few reactions to the Essay, and those had come from quarrelsome metaphysicians and outraged Churchmen. John Biddle1 has argued that Locke may have been aware, however, of a quite different sort of reaction. In 1693, he had met a young Irishman named John Toland, who seemed taken with Locke’s ideas. It had soon become known in the coffee houses of London that Toland was preparing a work denying that the Christian religion contained any mysteries (any tenets not discoverable through reason). Locke was still in contact with Toland and they seem to have exchanged some papers. It is thus possible that Locke had seen a draft of Christianity not mysterious (published in 1696) before he wrote his Reasonableness of Christianity. The latter can indeed be seen as a preemptive reply to Toland’s book. As a professed Christian, Locke took exception to Toland’s radical separation of reason and faith, which seemed to deny all place to revelation. Although Locke placed severe limitations on certain knowledge, he did feel that reason could achieve knowledge of the essential articles of the Christian faith and, moreover, that the understanding could lead reasonable men to assent to the revelation contained in the Scriptures. The reasonableness of Christianity was an exploration of the content of faith, just as Book IV of the Essay had contained an account of the nature of faith and assent. It was a defense of the Christian faith and scriptural revelation from the dangers of extreme scepticism. Ironically, the publication of Reasonableness merely called attention to the sceptical tendencies in Locke’s Essay, and the author found himself accused of the very Deism he was trying to combat.

_________________________

1 Biddle, “Locke’s critique of innate principles and Toland’s Deism” (1976)

 639

The reasonableness of Christianity, as delivered in the scriptures. London: printed for Awnsham and John Churchil, … 1695. [4], 304 p. 8o.

Published in early August; see advert. in London gazette, 8-12 August 1695; there are three issues, most clearly distinguished by additions to the list of errata on $A2v.

Locke’s own copy, interleaved and annotated, is preserved in the Houghton Library, Harvard University (*EC65.L7934.695ra)

Locke’s contract with the Churchills, dated 12 June 1695, survives in MS. Locke b. 1, f. 178.

Review: Anon., Acta eruditorum (1696)

Y 229; C 58; Wing L2751; H&L 697

 640

The reasonableness of Christianity, as delivered in the scriptures. The second edition. To which is added, A vindication of the same, from Mr. Edwards’s Exceptions. London: printed for Awnsham and John Churchil, … 1696. [4], 307, [5], 40, [4] p. 8o.

Published in late October 1695.

Includes A vindication … (1695) (Locke #669: [4], 40, [4] p. at end)

Y 230; C 58; Wing L2752; H&L 698

  —

The reasonableness of Christianity was included in the collected edition of Locke’s Works (1714) [Locke #848] and in all subsequent editions.

 641

The reasonableness of Christianity, as delivered in the scriptures. To which is added, A vindication of the same, from Mr. Edwards’s Exceptions. By John Locke, Esq; The fifth edition. London: printed for A. Bettesworth and C. Hitch, …; J. Pemberton, …, and E. Symon, … 1731. 292 p. 8o.

Includes A vindication … (p. 261-292)

Y 232

 642

The reasonableness of Christianity, as deliver’d in the scriptures. To which is added, A first and second vindication of the same; from some exceptions and reflections in a treatise by the Rev. Mr. Edwards, intitled, Some thoughts concerning the several causes and occasions of atheism, especially in the present age. By John Locke, Esq; The sixth edition. London: printed for A. Bettesworth and C. Hitch, …; J. Pemberton, …; and E. Symon, … M.DCC.XXXVI [1736]. 2 vols. ([2], 292; xvi, 392 p.) 8o.

Vol. 1 is a reissue of the 1731 edition, with a cancel title page; vol. 2 is: A second vindication of the Reasonableness of Christianity, as deliver’d in the scriptures. By John Locke, Esq; The fifth edition. London: printed by A. Bettesworth and C. Hitch, …; J. Pemberton, …; and E. Symon, … 1736. xvi, 392 p. 8o.

Y 234

 643

The reasonableness of Christianity, as delivered in the scriptures. To which is added, Two vindications of the same, from Mr. Edwards’s Exceptions. By John Locke, Esq; The sixth edition. London: printed for J. Osborn, …, 1748. 292 p. 8o.

Bodleian copy includes vol. 2 of the 1736 edition.

Y 235

 644

The reasonableness of Christianity, as delivered in the scriptures. By John Locke. The seventh edition. London: printed for A. Millar, H. Woodfall, J. Whiston and B. White, J. Rivington, L. Davis and C. Reymers, W. Owen, R. Baldwin, Hawes, Clarke and Collins, W. Johnston, S. Crowder, T. Longman, B. Law, C. Rivington, E. Dilly, R. Withy, S. Baker, T. Payne, C. and R. Ware, J. Schuckburgh, J. Hinxman, M. Richardson. M.DCC.LXIV [1764]. [4], 254[=253], [3] p. 8o.

Y 236

 645

“The reasonableness of Christianity, as delivered in the scriptures.” // IN: A collection of theological tracts, in six volumes. By Richard Watson … London: printed by J. Nichols; for T. Evans, London; J. & J. Merrils [sic], Cambridge; and J. & J. Fletcher, Oxford. M.DCC.LXXXV [1785]. 8o. Vol. 4:1-108.

Y 237; C 104

New

645A

“The reasonableness of Christianity, as delivered in the scriptures.” // IN: A collection of theological tracts, in six volumes. By Richard Watson … London: printed for T. Evans …; J. & J. Merrill, Cambridge; J. Fletcher, and Prince and Cooke, Oxford; P. Hill, Edinburgh; and W. M’Kenzie, Dublin. M.DCC.XCI [1791]. 8o. Vol. 4:1-108.

Y 237; C 104

 646

The reasonableness of Christianity as delivered in the scriptures / by John Locke ; to which is added, his celebrated Essay for the understanding of St. Paul’s Epistles ; with a short account of his life and writings. – London : sold by Johnson and Co. and D. Eaton, 1810. – xxiv, 264 p.

 647

The reasonableness of Christianity as delivered in the scriptures / by John Locke, Esq. ; with a preface by the American editor. – Boston : T.B. Wait, 1811. – xxx, 256 p.

 648

The reasonableness of Christianity, as delivered in the scriptures / by John Locke, Esq. – New ed. – London : printed for C. and J. Rivington [and others], 1824. – 424 p.

Also includes the two vindications.

 649

The reasonableness of Christianity, as delivered in the Scriptures ; to which are added, An essay on the understanding of St. Paul’s Epistles ; and, A discourse on miracles / by John Locke ; with a biographical essay, an appendix, and notes, by a layman [J.A. St. John]. – New York : Thomas George, Jr., 1835. – lv, 286 p. – (The Christian library ; v. 6)

Includes “An analysis of the first and second Vindications” (p. 213-240), “An essay on the understanding of St. Paul’s Epistles” (p. 243-270) and “A discourse on miracles” (p. 273-286)

Reprinted in 1836; also published: (1) London : J. Hatchard, 1836. – lv, 286 p. – (The sacred classics, or, Cabinet library of divinity ; vol. 25) and (2) London : G. Virtue, [1850?]

C 104

 650

Locke on the reasonableness of Christianity / with a biographical memoir of the author. – London : W. Smith, 1846. – 60 p. – (Smith’s Standard library)

Includes “A discourse on miracles” (p. 57-60)

 651

The reasonableness of Christianity / by John Locke. – London : I. Cooke, [1853?]. – 60 p. – (The universal library. Pt. 5, Essays ; vol. 1, p. 301-360)

Includes “A discourse on miracles” (p. 57-60)

[652]

[Not used]

 653

The reasonableness of Christianity as delivered in the scriptures / by John Locke ; complete and unabridged ; annotated with some references to other works of the author ; edited and introduced by George W. Ewing. – Chicago : H. Regnery, 1965. – xxvii, 228 p.

For the introduction, see entry in Chapter 5.

[654]

John Locke on Christianity : his context and his text … / by John C. Biddle (1972).

Includes a critical edition of The reasonableness of Christianity.

LNL 5:3

New

*654+

The reasonableness of Christianity, as delivered in the Scriptures / John Locke ; edited by George W. Ewing ; with a new foreword by Harold O. J. Brown. – Washington, D.C. : Regnery Pub. ; Lanham, MD : distributed to the trade by National Book Network, 1998. – xxx, 184 p.

ISBN 0-895-26402-1.

Unverified.

New

*654+

The reasonableness of Christianity as delivered in the Scriptures / John Locke ; with a new introduction by Victor Nuovo. – Bristol, Eng. ; Dulles, Va. : Thoemmes Press, 1997. – (Key texts)

Also includes A vindication of The reasonableness of Christianity &c. and A second vindication of The reasonableness of Christianity &c.; reprinted from vol. 6 of The works of John Locke (1794)

For the introduction, see entry in Chapter 5.

ISBN 1-85506-522-3.

Rev.

 655

The reasonableness of Christianity as delivered in the scriptures / John Locke ; edited with an introduction, notes, critical apparatus and transcriptions of related manuscripts by John C. Higgins-Biddle. – Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1999. – (The Clarendon edition of the works of John Locke).

Includes transcriptions of the following manuscripts: MS. Locke c. 27, f. 94 [three revisions for the 2nd ed.] (p. 182-183) – MS. Locke c. 27, ff. 95-100 [biblical verses] (p. 184-198) – MS. Locke c. 27, f. 102 [fragment] (p. 200) – MS. Locke c. 27, f. 103 [Adam ante lapsum immortalis] (p. 201) – MS. Locke c. 27, ff. 104-111 [lists of biblical verses] (p. 201-205) – MS. Locke c. 27, ff. 112-113 [Redemtion, Death] – MS. Locke c. 27, ff. 114-115 [Christianity Jun. 95] – MS. Locke c. 27, ff. 116-117 [Life, Death] – MS. Locke c. 27, f. 118 [Christianity 95] – MS. Locke c. 27, ff. 129-130 [Rewards of life & death]

Review: S. D. Snobelen, “Socinianism, heresy and John Locke’s Reasonableness of Christianity (2001)

The reasonableness of Christianity.   Abridgment.

Rev.

 655+

The reasonableness of Christianity as delivered in the scriptures / by John Locke ; edited by A.J. Ferris. – London : Marshall Press, 1946. – 92 p.

 656

The reasonableness of Christianity ; with, A discourse of miracles ; and part of A third letter concerning toleration / John Locke ; edited, abridged, and introduced by I.T. Ramsey. – Stanford : Stanford University Press, 1958. – 102 p. – (Library of modern religious thought)

Also published: London : A. & C. Black, 1958; reprinted 1967.

For the introduction, see entry in Chapter 5.

H&W 263

The reasonableness of Christianity.   Selections.

[657]

Remarks on the religious sentiments of learned and eminent laymen; viz. Sir Isaac Newton, Hon. Robert Boyle, Locke, Sir Matthew Hale, Addison, Nelson, Lord Lyttelton, West, Soame Jenyns, &c. &c. (1790)

Translations of The reasonableness of Christianity

The reasonableness of Christianity.   Chinese.

New

*657+

基督教的合理性 = The reasonableness of Christianity / () 约翰•洛克 著 = John Locke ; 王爱菊 译. – 武汉 : 武汉大学出版社, 2006.

Ji du jiao de he li xing = The reasonableness of Christianity / (ying) Yuehan Luoke zhu = John Locke ; Wang Aiju yi. – Wuhan : Wuhan da xue chu ban she, 2006. – 40,172 p.

ISBN 7-307-04717-9.

Unverified.

The reasonableness of Christianity.   Dutch.

New

*657+

De schriftmatige redelykheyt van ’t Christendom. Door Johannes Lock. Uyt het Engels vertaalt. … t’ Amsterdam, by Evert Visscher, boekverkooper … 1729. [4], 290, [2] p. 8o.

Based on Coste’s 1696 French translation [Locke #658]

Y 239; Schoneveld [11]

The reasonableness of Christianity.   French.

 658

Que la religion chrétienne est trés-raisonnable telle qu’elle nous est représentée dans l’Écriture sainte. Traduit de l’anglois, imprimé à Londres, chez A. & J. Churchill. A Amsterdam. Chez Henri Wetstein. 1696. [8], 356, [4] p. 8o.

Translation by Pierre Coste.

Review (with Coste’s abridgment of the Vindications): Basnage de Beauval, Histoire des ouvrages des savans (1703); Le Clerc, Bibliothèque choisie (1703)

Y 240; C 58; H&L 701

Rev.

 659

Le Christianisme raisonnable, tel qu’il nous est représenté dans l’Écriture sainte. Traduit de l’anglois de Mr. Locke. Seconde édition, revûë, corrigée; & augmentée d’une dissertation où l’on établit le vrai et l’unique moyen de réunir tous les Chrétiens, malgré la différence de leurs sentimens. On a joint à cette édition La religion des dames. … A Amsterdam, chez l’Honoré et Chatelain. M DCCXV [1715]. 2 vols. (XII, [2], 384, port.; [4], 370, [4] p.) 8o.

A revised version Coste translation, produced under Locke’s direction; tome 2 consists of sheets from the 1703 French abridgement of the Vindications [Locke #681] with a cancel preliminary gathering and three additional gatherings; the “dissertation” is probably by Coste; the “La religion des dames” is a translation of A lady’s religion, which Coste attributes to William Stephens.

The frontispiece of tome 1 is an engraved portrait of Locke after Kneller, in an oval frame over a pedestal.

Review: Le Clerc, Bibliothèque ancienne et moderne (1715)

Y 242; C 104

New

*659A

Le Christianisme raisonnable … La Haye: Gosse et J. Neaulme, 1730. 8o.

Cited by Rochedieu; no known copies; this may be a ghost.

Y 243

 660

Le Christianisme raisonnable, tel qu’il nous est representé dans l’Écriture sainte. Traduit de l’anglois de M. Locke. Troisiéme édition, revûë, corrigée & augmentée d’une dissertation où l’on établit le vrai & l’unique moyen de réunir tous les Chrétiens malgré la différence de leurs sentimens. On a joint à cette édition La religion des dames. … A Amsterdam, chez Zacharie Chatelain. M.DCC.XXXI [1731]. 2 vols. (X, [4], 389, [3], port.; [4], 350, [2] p.) 8o.

The Coste translation; reprint of the 1715 edition.

Y 244; C 104

 661

Le Christianisme raisonnable, tel qu’il nous est représenté dans l’Écriture sainte. Traduit de l’anglois de M. Locke, par M. Coste. Quatrième édition, revue, corrigée & augmentée d’une dissertation où l’on établit le vrai & l’unique moyen de réunir tous les Chrétiens malgré la différence de leurs sentimens. On a joint à cette édition La religion des dames. … A Amsterdam, chez Zacharie Chatelain. M.DCC.XL [1740]. 2 vols. (X, 364, [4], port.; [4], 318, [2] p.) 8o.

Reprint of the 1731 edition.

Y 245; C 104

 662

“Que la religion chrétienne est trés raisonnable telle qu’elle nous est représentée dans l’Écriture sainte.” // IN: Démonstrations évangéliques de Tertullian … [and others] / traduites, pour la plupart, des diverses langues dans lesquelles elles avaient été écrites ; reproduites intégralement, non par extraits ; annotée et publiées par M. l’abbé M**** [Migne]. – Petit-Montrouge : chez l’éditeur, 1842-53. – t. 4 (1843):col.237-508.

The Coste translation.

C 104-105

New

*662A

Que la religion chrétienne est très-raisonnable, telle qu’elle nous est représentée dans l’Ecriture Sainte ; Discours sur les miracles / John Locke ; éditions critiques par Hélène Bouchilloux. Essai sur la nécessité d’expliquer les Epîtres de S. Paul par S. Paul même ; La vie de Coste et anecdotes sur ses ouvrages / éditions critiques par Maria-Cristina Pitassi. – Oxford : Voltaire Foundation, 1999. – 268 p. – (Libre pensée et littérature clandestine ; 9)

Reprints Pierre Coste’s translation of The reasonableness of Christianity, Jean Le Clerc’s translations of An essay for the understanding of St. Paul’s Epistles and A discourse of miracles; “La vie de Coste …,” by Charles de La Motte, is printed from Univesiteitsbibliotheek Leyden, Prosper Marchand MSS., March. 45, ff. 5-11.

ISBN 0-7294-0563-X.

The reasonableness of Christianity.   German.

Rev.

 663

Johann Locks gründlicher Beweiß/ daß die Christliche Religion/ so wie sie uns in der Heil. Schrift vorgestellet wird/ höchst billig/ vernünftig und raisonable sey. Allen Frr=Geistern zu deutlicher und genugsamer Uberzeigung/ übersetzt herausgegeben/ von D. Joh. Christoph Meinigen. Braunschweig/ MDCCXXXIII [1733]. Zu finden in der Rengerischen Buchhandlung. 2 vols. ([30], 320, port.; 288 p.) 8o.

Translation of Coste’s French translation, 1715 edition, including the abridgement of the Vindications as “Zweyter Theil.”

Y 246; C 105

Rev.

 664

Des berümten Engländers Johann Loke Vernunftmäßiges Christenthum, wie es in der heiligen Schrift enthalten ist: nebst einer kurzen Abhandlung des Herrn Coste, worinn das einzige wahr Mittel, alle Christen, der Verschiedenheit ihrer Meynungen unerachtet, mit einander zu vereinigen, gezeiget wird, ins deutsch übersetzt. Berlin und Leipzig, Verlegts Christian Friedrich Günther, … 1758-59. 2 vols. ([4], 280, [4]; 229, [3] p.) 8o.

Translation of Coste’s French translation, including the abridgement of the Vindications as “Zweyter Theil.”

Y 247; C 105

Reprinted in: Locke in Germany : early German translations of John Locke, 1709-61 / selected and introduced by Konstantin Pollok. – Bristol : Thoemmes Continuum, 2004. – vol. 8.

 665

John Locke’s Reasonableness of Christianity = Vernünftigkeit des biblischen Christentums, 1695 / übersetzt von C. Winckler ; mit einer Einleitung herausgegeben von Leopold Zscharnack. – Giessen : A. Töpelman, 1914. – xlvi, 140 p. – (Studien zur Geschichte des neueren Protestantismus ; 4. Quellenheft)

For the introduction, see entry in Chapter 5.

The reasonableness of Christianity.   Italian.

 666

La ragionevollezza del cristianesimo / John Locke ; [saggio introduttivo e note di Alfredo Sabetti ; traduzione italiana di Ida Cappiello]. – [Firenze] : La Nuova Italia, 1976. – cxxxiii, 181 p. – (Pensatori antichi e moderni ; 98)

M 65

“John Locke : la religione tra ‘ragione’ e ‘rivelazione’ ” / Alfredo Sabetti (p. vii, cxxi); see entry in Chapter 5.

  —

An Italian translation by Mario Sina was included in Locke #873.

The reasonableness of Christianity.   Spanish.

*667

La racionalidad del cristianismo / John Locke ; traducción de Leandro González Puertas ; introducción de Cirilo Flórez Miguel. – Madrid : Paulinas, 1977. – 255 p. – (Filosofía ; vol. 2)

For the introduction, see entry in Chapter 5.

Unverified.

Controversy over The reasonableness of Christianity (1695-1698)

The assault on Reasonableness began immediately. John Edwards, who would become Locke’s principal antagonist, published Some thoughts concerning the several causes and occasions of atheism in 1695. His approach was typical of the entire controversy. He found Locke’s single article of faith inadequate, and argued that belief in the Trinity is required of Christians. Not content to enlarge on Locke’s article of faith, he contended that Locke had denied the Trinity and was therefore a Socinian and an Atheist. Edwards did not use the terms “Socinian” and “Atheist”with any precision, but was merely using effective terms of abuse for an opponent whose orthodoxy he questioned.

Locke was defended by the anonymous author of The exceptions of Mr. Edwards … examined, but also published his own Vindication (1695). Edwards responded abusively to both authors in Socinianism unmask’d. Locke did not reply; by this time, Toland’s Christianity not mysterious had appeared and Stillingfleet had attacked the Essay. However, Samuel Bold joined the debate against Edwards and after further exchanges, Locke brought out an extensive and pedantic Second vindication (1697). By 1698, the attacks on Reasonableness had stopped – probably absorbed into the controversy over An essay concerning human understanding, which persisted for some years (see “Attack and defense” above).

[668]

Edwards, J. Some thoughts concerning the several causes and occasions of atheism (1695)

Locke, J.   A vindication of The reasonableness of Christianity.

 669

A vindication of the Reasonableness of Christianity, &c. from Mr. Edwards’s Reflections. London: printed for Awnsham and John Churchil, … 1695. [2], 40, [4] p. 8o.

Published in late October; see advert. in London gazette, 14-18 November 1695; also published with the 2nd ed. of Reasonableness [Locke #640]

There are two issues, the second with leaf A4 cancelled.

Review (with Edwards’ Socinianism unmask’d): Anon., Acta eruditorum (1696)

Y 231; C 59; Wing L2769; H&L 699

  —

A vindication is included in editions of The reasonableness published in 1696, 1731, 1736, 1748 [Locke #640-643], 1824 [Locke #648] and 1997 [Locke #654+]; and in the collected edition of Locke’s Works (1714) [Locke #848]. It is included in Vindications of the Reasonableness of Christianity in the Clarendon edition [Locke #680+].

  —

Coste published a condensed French version of the two vindications [Locke #681]. An Italian translation was included in Locke #873.

[670]

[Anonymous]. The exceptions of Mr. Edwards, in his Causes of atheism, against the Reasonableness of Christianity, as delivered in the Scriptures, examin’d and found unreasonable, unscriptural, and injurious. … (1695)

[671]

Edwards, J. Socinianism unmask’d (1696)

[672]

Edwards, J. A demonstration of the existence and providence of God … (1696)

[673]

[Prideaux, H.] A letter to the Deists (1696)

[674]

[Toland, J.] Christianity not mysterious (1696)

[675]

Browne, P. A letter in answer to a book entituled Christianity not mysterious (1697)

[676]

Bold, S. Some passages in The reasonableness of Christianity … (1697)

[677]

Edwards, J. The Socinian creed (1697)

[678]

Bold, S. A reply to Mr. Edwards’s Brief reflections … (1697)

[679]

[Willis, R.] The occasional paper (1697)

Locke, J.   A second vindication of The reasonableness of Christianity.

 680

A second vindication of the Reasonableness of Christianity, &c. By the author of the Reasonableness of Christianity, &c. London, printed for A. and J. Churchill, …, 1697. [24], 480 p. 8o.

Published in mid-March; a second issue, with a cancel title page, has imprint: London, printed for A. and J. Churchill, …, and Edward Castle, …, 1697.

The preface contains a letter from Locke to Samuel Bold signed “A. B.” [De Beer ix 2207A]

Review: Anon., Acta Erud. (1698)

Y 233; C 64-65; Wing 2756, 2756A; H&L 700

  —

Included in editions of Reasonableness published in 1736 and 1748 [Locke #642-643], 1824 [Locke #648] and 1997 [Locke #654+]; and in the collected edition of Locke’s Works (1714) [Locke #848]. It is included in Vindications of the Reasonableness of Christianity in the Clarendon edition [Locke #680+].

Locke, J.   Vindications of The reasonableness of Christianity.

New

680+

Vindications of The reasonableness of Christianity / John Locke ; edited with introductions, notes, and critical apparatus by Victor Nuovo. – Oxford : Clarendon Press, 2012. – (The Clarendon edition of the works of John Locke)

Contents: General introduction – Textual introduction – Introduction to Pierre Coste’s French version of the VindicationsA vindication of the Reasonableness of Christianity, &c.A second vindication of the Reasonableness of Christianity, &c.MS. Locke c. 29, fo. 99, A fragment of a defence of The Reasonableness of Christianity – Appendix I, Table of Biblical citations and references in the Vindications – Appendix II, Que la religion Chrétienne est tres-raisonnable, telle qu’elle nous est représentée dans l’Ecriture Sainte. Seconde partie – Appendix III, Comparative table of the English and French versions of the Vindications.

For the editor’s Introduction, see entry in Chapter 5.

LS 12:7

Locke, J.   Vindications of The reasonableness of Christianity.   Abridgement.   French.

Rev.

 681

Que la religion chrétienne est tres-raisonnable, telle qu’elle nous est représentée dans l’Écriture sainte. Seconde partie, traduit de l’anglois. A Amsterdam, chez Henry Schelte. MDCCIII [1703]. [4], 318, [2] p. 8o.

An abridged translation by Coste of the two Vindications; issued as tome 2 of the 1696 French edition of Reasonableness [Locke #658]

Reviews (with the French translation of Reasonableness): Basnage de Beauval, Histoire des ouvrages des savans (1703); Le Clerc, Bibliothèque choisie (1703)

Y 241; C 70; H&L 702a

  —

Included as Tome 2 in translations of Reasonableness published in 1715 [Locke #659], 1731 [Locke #660] and 1740 [Locke #661]. It is included as an appendix in Vindications of the Reasonableness of Christianity in the Clarendon edition [Locke #680+].

Locke, J.   Vindications of The reasonableness of Christianity.   Abridgement.   German.

  —

Included as 2. Theil in translations of Reasonableness published in 1733 [Locke #663] and 1759 [Locke #664]

[682]

Edwards, J. A brief vindication of the fundamental articles of the Christian faith … (1697)

[683]

[Anonymous]. Animadversions on a late book entituled The reasonableness of Christianity as delivered in the Scriptures (1697)

[684]

Bold, S. Observations on the Animadversions (lately printed at Oxford) on a late book, entituled, The reasonableness of Christianity, as delivered in the Scriptures (1698)

[685]

Bold, S. A collection of tracts, publish’d in vindication of Mr. Lock’s Reasonableness of Christianity … and of his Essay, concerning humane understanding (1706)

Aesop’s Fables (1703)

In Some thoughts concerning education, Locke had recommended teaching children Latin “by taking some easy and pleasant Book, such as AEsop’s Fables, and writing the English translation (made as literal as it can be) in one Line, and the Latin Words which answer each of them, just over it in another.” No such version existed at that time, but as early as November 1691, Locke was sending Edward Clarke a sheet printed in the manner described. Nothing came of the project until the last years of Locke’s life. Working in collaboration with his publishers, the Churchills, and with William Grigg (the son of a friend and a Cambridge don), he took up the project again. The book was published in November 1703. The title page and preface contain no indication of responsibility, nor do they describe the textual sources. Robert H. Horwitz and Judith B. Finn2 have identified the text as a simplified version of Charles Hoole’s 1657 Latin-English version. The Locke-Grigg Æsop was re-issued only once, with Locke’s name on the title page, in 1723. It does not appear in any collection of Locke’s works.

There is a curious sequel to Locke’s interlinear AEsop.3 Around 1830, the London publisher John Taylor was advertising a series of “literal interlinear translations, on the plan recommended by Mr. Locke.” The series included Greek authors such as Lucian and Herodotus and Latin works such as Ovid’s Metamorphoses and Tacitus’ Agricola. The small books were not made for posterity; I have seen only one example, a 2nd edition of The odes of Anacreon in the Boston Public Library.

_________________________

2 Robert H. Horwitz and Judith B. Finn, “Locke’s Aesop’s Fables”(1975).

3See C. A. Stray, “ ‘Locke’s system of classical instruction’ (1827-  )” (1991)

 669

AEsop’s fables, in English & Latin, interlineary, for the benefit of those who not having a master, would learn either of these tongues. With sculptures. London: printed for A. and J. Churchil. 1703. [24], 337, [1] p. 8o.

C 74

 669

AEsop’s fables, in English & Latin, interlineary, for the benefit of those who not having a master, would learn either of these tongues. The second edition, with sculptures. By John Locke, Gent. London: printed for A. Bettesworth, 1723. [8], 337, [9] p. 8o.

A re-issue of the 1703 edition, with a new title page.

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The Preface (sig. a2r-3r) will be printed in Literary and philosophical writings in the Clarendon edition of the works of John Locke.